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8 Ways Your Eyes Change With Age

Our eyes and vision change with age. Your eye doctor can monitor these changes — some of which are a natural part of the aging process — and identify any eye conditions or diseases early enough to treat them and prevent vision loss. Read on to learn more about the different types of eye changes one may encounter with age.

Age-Related Eye Conditions and Diseases

Cataracts

If your vision is starting to get blurry, you may be developing cataracts. There are a few types of cataracts, but the one usually caused by aging is known as a “nuclear cataract”. At first, it may lead to increased nearsightedness or even a temporary improvement in your reading vision. But with time, the lens gradually turns more densely yellow and clouds your vision. As the cataract slowly progresses, the lens may even turn brown. Advanced yellowing or browning of the lens can lead to difficulty distinguishing between shades of color, and left untreated, it can eventually lead to blindness. Luckily, cataract surgery, where the cloudy lens is replaced with a clear lens, is an extremely safe and effective treatment option. 

Blepharoptosis

Blepharoptosis or ptosis is a drooping of the upper eyelid that may affect one or both eyes. The eyelid may droop only slightly or may droop enough to cover the pupil and block vision. It occurs when there is a weakness of the eye’s levator muscle that lifts the eyelid. This condition is usually caused by aging, eye surgery, or disease affecting the muscle or its nerve. Fortunately, blepharoptosis can be corrected with surgery.

Vitreous detachment

This occurs when the gel-like vitreous fluid inside the eye begins to liquefy and pull away from the retina, causing “spots and floaters” and, sometimes, flashes of light. This occurrence is usually harmless, but floaters and flashes of light can also signal the beginning of a detached retina — a serious problem that can cause blindness, and requires immediate treatment. If you experience sudden or worsening flashes and increased floaters, see Dr. Kara immediately to determine the cause.

Other Age-Related Changes

In addition to the above eye conditions and diseases, the structure of our eyes and vision change as we get older. 

Presbyopia

Why do people in their 40s and 50s have more difficulty focusing on near objects like books and phone screens? The lens inside the eye begins to lose its ability to change shape and bring near objects into focus, a process is called presbyopia. Over time, presbyopia, also known as age-related farsightedness, will become more pronounced and you will eventually need reading glasses to see clearly. You may need multiple prescriptions – one prescription to enable you to see up close, one for intermediate distance, and one for distance vision. In that case, people often get bifocals, multifocals or PALs, and they can be combined with contact lenses as well.

Reduced pupil size

As we age, our reaction to light and the muscles that control our pupil size lose some strength. This causes the pupil to become smaller and less responsive to changes in ambient lighting. The result? It becomes harder to clearly see objects, such as a menu, in a low-light setting like a restaurant.  

Dry eye

Our tear glands produce fewer tears and the tears they produce have less moisturizing oils. Your eye doctor can determine whether your dry eye is age-related or due to another condition, and will recommend the right over-the-counter or prescription eye drops, or other effective and lasting treatments, to alleviate the dryness and restore comfort.

Loss of peripheral vision

Aging causes a 1-3 degree loss of peripheral vision per decade of life. In fact, one may reach a peripheral visual field loss of 20-30 degrees by the time they reach their 70s and 80s. While peripheral vision loss is a normal part of aging, it can also indicate the presence of a serious eye disease, like glaucoma. The best way to ascertain the cause is by getting an eye exam. 

Decreased color vision

The cells in the retina responsible for normal color vision tend to decline as we age, causing colors to become less bright and the contrast between different colors to be less noticeable. Though a normal part of aging, faded colors can at times signal a more serious ocular problem. 

Beyond the normal changes that come with age, the risk of developing a serious eye disease, such as age related macular degeneration and glaucoma, increases. Routine eye exams are essential to keeping your eyes healthy. Your eye doctor can determine whether your symptoms are caused by an eye problem or are a normal byproduct of aging. 

If you or a loved one suffers from impaired vision, we can help. To find out more and to schedule your annual eye doctor’s appointment, contact Dr. A Kara & Associates in Downtown Toronto today. 

Multifocal Contact Lenses – See Clearly Again!

Multifocals are lenses that allow you to see near, far and in between. Over 40? When you don't want to wear glasses or reading glasses, read on for the incredible solution.
Specially designed to incorporate multiple prescriptions, multifocal contact lenses are particularly popular for people with presbyopia who lead an active lifestyle.

Are you one of the 4 types of people who are good candidates for multifocal contacts?

Patients who benefit from multifocal contact lenses are typically:

  1. Over 40
  2. Presbyopia sufferers
  3. Need more than one prescription
    (ie: hyperopia & myopia)
  4. Contact lens wearers

Age related near-vision blurriness is so common, it's actually considered normal. But that doesn't mean you can't treat it. Even if you have both nearsightedness and farsightedness - and want to be able to see clearly at all distances - you don't have to let glasses get in the way of your favorite activities. Switching into reading glasses every time you want to focus on something up close is a drag. It's not too late to try contacts, even if you haven't worn them up until now.

What types of multifocal contacts are there?

  1. Material: Multifocal contact lenses are available as soft contacts, rigid gas permeable (GP or hard contacts) or a combination of the two in a hybrid contact lens form by certain manufacturers. Silicone hydrogel is one of the latest contact lens materials, allowing more oxygen flow for more comfort.
  2. Wearing schedule: Depending on the type, multifocal contacts may be available in a variety of wearing schedules, including extended wear and disposables.
  3. Brands include:
    • Air Optix Aqua Multifocal (Alcon)
    • Bausch + Lomb Ultra for Presbyopia (Bausch + Lomb)
    • Biofinity Multifocal (CooperVision)
    • Acuvue Oasys for Presbyopia (Johnson & Johnson Vision Care)
    • Duette Progressive and Duette Multifocal (SynergEyes) hybrid contact lenses, which have a central optical zone made of GP lens material for crisp optics and a peripheral fitting zone made of soft silicone hydrogel material for comfort.


 How do multifocal contact lenses work?

Multifocals can be divided into 2 basic designs plus a 3rd type of technique:

Simultaneous vision lenses:

Prescriptions alternate throughout the lenses and the eye learns to compensate by using the right part of the lens when needed. The most popular type of multifocal, they are nearly always soft lenses, and are available in two designs:

  • Concentric ring designs - with alternating rings of distance and near powers.
  • Aspheric designs - progressive-style, with many powers blended across the lens surface. Some aspheric lenses have the distance power in the center of the lens; others have the near power in the center.

Alternating vision (or translating) lenses:

Designed more like bifocals, the top part of the lens has the distance power for when you look straight ahead, and the bottom part of the lens contains the near power. When you look down, your lower lid holds the lens in place while your pupil moves (translates) into the near zone of the lens for reading. Commonly, these are manufactured as rigid gas permeable (GP) lenses, which are smaller.

Monovision Technique:

One eye wears a contact lens for distance-vision correction and the other eye wears a near-vision or multifocal lens. The visual system learns to automatically use the appropriate eye to focus at the right distance.


To determine the best contact lenses for your vision needs when you reach "bifocal age," call our office for a consultation.

For More Information About Contact Lenses Visit Our Eye Doctor

*Multifocal contact lens screening at no extra charge when you come for an eye exam

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